Monkeypox Virus

Monkeypox Virus BBC

Monkeypox is nowadays building a fear among people all over the world. It is infecting people very speedily. Here we are going to share some information about this virus with you from the research of WHO which is an agency that connects countries.

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About monkeypox

What is Monkeypox?

It is a double standard DNA that is from the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. There are two distinct types of this virus introduced, one is from the African country Congo and the other is from west Africa. Both of them are affecting human beings. Both clades of the virus affected people in Cameroon which is the only country where the two clades were affected at one time. This virus originated from monkeys present in tropical forests of Africa. Somehow through a close connection to the animals, it transmitted to other animals and some human beings also. It started affecting people in Africa and later traveled to America and after that to the other countries of the world.

Symptoms and transmission

Monkeypox is a virus that is transmitted to human beings from some infected monkeys. Its symptoms are the same as smallpox but clinically it is not that much severe. After the eradication of smallpox and its vaccination in 2018, monkeypox became to people a most serious orthopoxvirus virus. It primarily appeared in African countries, in their forests. Started transmitting to humans from Africa and continued to affect the whole world.
After research, it was known that various animals are responsible for this virus now. Rats, monkeys, pet dogs, etc. were diagnosed with the disease.
More research is on its way to the original responsible for this virus.

Animal Virus transfer to the Humen

Animal to human transmission is called zoonotic transmission. It can transmit through contact with blood, floods of the body like sweat or eye tears, and too much getting close to those animals who contain the virus. Another risk factor is eating uncooked or less cooked meat of the infected animals.
Human transmission is possible by close contact with each other while one is infected. It can transmit by close contact of breaths of two, touching skin, getting too close, and contact with body fluids. Transmission by breaths requires a prolonged close contact of two faces which makes a close contact in breaths of two. It is the longest documented time of transmitting monkeypox among people.
Transmission of this virus can also occur from mother to fetus or during and after birth. It may be life-threatening for newly born infants as compared to other people. Very close contact between two bodies is the main risk of this virus transmission so people should avoid it as much as possible.
The period of incubation for monkeypox (interval from infection to symptoms) is usually noticed from 6 to 13 days. It changes the body during the days and shows early symptoms during those days.
In the first 5 days, patients experience high fever, back pain, swelling of lymph nodes, intense headaches, and muscle aches also. All the symptoms are the same as chickenpox and smallpox.
Usually, during the first 3 days, skin eruption begins and the rash affects badly and becomes more concentrated on the face and open body areas first. After that small or large sections of lesions appears on the skin and create more rash on all body parts. There is a self-limitation of this disease that is from 6 to 13 days. After that, it starts healing by itself and rashes start disappearing from the body. In some cases, it may become complicated and creates a secondary infection, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, encephalitis, and infection of the cornea with ensuing loss of vision. It happens mostly in people with less immunity like children and old age people.
Historically the fatality ratio of monkeypox was 0% to 11% which was higher among children. Later on, it became 3 to 6%.

Outlook

As we mentioned before that Monkeypox is a virus transmitted from monkeys to humans. The first human monkeypox case was identified in 1970. Since then this disease is reported in eleven African countries:

  1. Benin
  2. Cameroon
  3. The central Africa republic
  4. The Democratic Republic of the Congo
  5. Cote d’Ivoire
  6. Gabon
  7. Liberia
  8. Nigeria
  9. the Republic of the Congo
  10. Sierra Leone
  11. South Sudan
    During 1996-97 a higher attack rate was reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The true burden of this disease is still not known, it was a large concurrent outbreak of chickenpox (which is not orthopoxvirus) and monkeypox which explained more transmission dynamics of monkeypox in humans than before. In Nigeria, a large outbreak was reported in 2017. Approximately 500 suspected cases were reported and around 200 cases were confirmed cases reported after those cases continue to be reported still in Nigeria. A case fatality ratio was about 3%. Monkeypox did not stop transmitting even though it became an important disease for global public health. It not only affected countries of Africa only but it started affecting the rest of the world in 2003. After Africa, the first case of this disease was reported in the united states of America which was linked to infected pet dogs, the dogs were imported from Ghana and housed with some kind of rats. This case led to 70 cases reported later. some People traveling from Nigeria to Israel were also affected by the infection in September 2018.
    In the same month, this virus also reached the United Kingdom, also in December 2019, May 2021, and May 2022. Further studies are currently on their way and health organizations are doing deep research on its causes and symptoms.

Reference Links:

WHO

Monkeypox Virus
Monkeypox Virus Reference image from WHO

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